Oil and gas companies are divided into three categories: upstream, midstream, and downstream.
Each type of company plays an important role in the industry, and they share some similarities while having their own unique differences. At a high level, upstream companies are responsible for the exploration and production of oil and gas, while midstream companies are responsible for the transportation, storage, and distribution of the resources. Downstream companies are the ones that purchase and refine the resources and distribute them to consumers.
Oil and gas companies are essential for the extraction and production of the energy we use daily. Upstream oil and gas companies are those that are involved in the exploration and production (E&P) of crude oil and natural gas. They focus on finding potential oil and gas reserves and then extracting the resources from underground reservoirs. They are responsible for the drilling that yields these resources and for regulatory compliance. These steps require extensive knowledge and expertise in geology, engineering, technology and compliance/regulations.
The midstream oil and gas sector encompasses the transportation and storage of crude oil and natural gas from their extraction points to their eventual consumption points. It is in this area where oil and gas companies play a critical role in the process, connecting producers with refiners, petrochemical plants, and other end-users. The midstream sector includes activities such as gathering, transporting, storing, processing, and marketing of crude oil, natural gas, and refined products.
The main responsibilities of midstream oil and gas companies include transporting and storing the resources to make them available for sale in the market. To do this, they use pipelines, tankers, barges, and railcars to transport the resources from their extraction points to their consumption points. Midstream companies also provide services such as blending different types of crude oils for better price competitiveness, pumping natural gas through compressor stations to increase pressure for onward transmission, fractionating natural gas liquids into different streams (e.g., ethane, propane, butane), and handling the overall storage and distribution of both oil and gas products.
In addition to transportation and storage, many midstream companies also provide additional services such as trading and marketing of oil and gas products. This allows them to take advantage of changing market conditions and maximize profits by buying or selling resources at optimal prices.
By carrying out their activities in an efficient and reliable manner, midstream oil and gas companies play an integral role in ensuring that the market remains well-supplied with resources. In doing so, they help maintain a steady supply of energy for consumers and businesses around the world.
The downstream sector of the oil and gas industry is perhaps the most visible to the public. This is where gasoline and other petroleum products are refined and distributed. Companies in the downstream sector are responsible for taking raw crude oil and refining it into various useful products. Downstream companies also handle the transportation and delivery of products, as well as storage, marketing, and retail sales. These companies can range from small, independent operators to large, multinational corporations. By providing fuel, lubricants, plastics, chemicals, and other products derived from oil and gas, downstream companies play an important role in modern life.
Through these processes and activities, all three sectors help to maintain a steady flow of energy and other commodities that are essential to everyday life.